Enforcing Rights and Enacting Citizenship

Brooding over Federalism (1883-1964)

Map 4 charts Parts III.A-B of the article (“Assigning the ‘Occasional Unpleasant Task’ of Civil Rights Enforcement + Protecting the Performance of Free Citizenship”). This map shows both the “Enforcement” cases discussed in Part III.A (Screws and Williams) as well as the primary “Enactment” cases discussed in Part III.B (Garner, Peterson, and Bell). For reference, the separate majority and dissenting opinions in the Civil Rights Case are included.

In chronological order, the cases giving rise to the Supreme Court opinions on the map are: Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883); Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896); Screws v. United States, 325 U.S. 91 (1945); United States v. Williams, 341 US 97 (1951); Garner v. Louisiana, 368 U.S. 157 (1961); Peterson v. City of Greenville, 373 U.S. 244 (1963); Bell v. Maryland, 378 U.S. 226 (1964).

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